Asking for an explanation
طلب تفسير Giving an explanation
Can you explain why…? Let me explain.
Do you know how…? I'll try and explain.
I'd like to know how…? Here's what happens.
How on earth…? كيف .... بالله عليك؟ What happens is that..
Could you tell me how/why…? I'll explain that to you.
1- A: How on earth do floods occur so quickly?
B: Here's what happens. If a lot of rain falls in a short time, the soil can't absorb it all and the water stays on the surface of the land.
2- A: Can you explain why cities sometimes flood?
B: I'll try and explain. It's usually when there's a river in or near the city. Water runs off the land into the river and the river becomes too full. The water then runs into the city.
@ Respond to each of the following situations:
1- You ask a friend how floods occur so quickly.
2- A friend asks you that makes a good businessman.
3- You ask friend why cities sometimes flood.
4- A friend asks you why some people enjoy action films.
@ Choose the correct answer:
1- The best thing about our holiday to Iceland was our visit to see the (geyser-chaser-Caesar-gesture)
2- If it rains so hard that the soil cannot (drink-eat-absorb-provide) water quickly enough, there are floods.
3- When there is an (atmosphere-eclipse-echo-idea) of the sun, everything goes dark and the birds stop singing.
4- You cannot see ultraviolet (rats-rites-rays-razors), but they can still damage your skin.
5- She does not need to wear glasses. There is nothing wrong with her (sight-hearing-smell-taste).
6- An eclipse of the sun is a strange natural (phenomenon-sight-response-view).
7- Storms can (take-bring-cause-occur) at any time and in any place.
8- It has not rained here for five months. It is the longest (draught-drought-draft-doubt) anyone can remember.
9- Scientists are not sure what causes volcanoes to (rise-excite-emit-erupt).
10- When I was a child, I used to be afraid of storms. I covered my eyes so that I could not see the (fighting-lighting-lightning-sighting).
11- Alexandria is in the (north-northern-northerly-westerly) of Egypt.
12- Electric storms are a common (occasion-accident-occurrence-lightning) in our part of the country.
13- These trees have grown (artificially-phenomenally-accidentally-traditionally) tall in the last two years.
14- Where we live, the wind usually blows in a (southerly-south-west-north) direction.
15- Very (tall-huge-high-big) temperatures can make people ill.
16- The city was destroyed by high waves and (cruel-violent-hard-severe) storms.
17- Storms can cause (cruel-serious-strong-high) damage.
18- (Big-Strong-Heavy-High) rain and strong winds destroyed buildings all over the country.
19- Denmark is in (north-northern-northerly-forth) Europe.
20- A (lunar-partial-solar-total) eclipse occurs when the earth is between the sun and the moon.
21- Greece and Spain are in (south-southern-southerly-the south) Europe.
22- A (partial-solar-lunar-total) eclipse occurs when the moon passes between the sun and the earth.
23- The eclipse of the sun is called a (polar-lunar-solar-regular) eclipse.
24- (An ecstasy-An eclipse-A clips-A collapse) happens when the light of the sun or moon disappears completely or in part.
25- X- Rays and ultraviolet rays are harmful (at-on-with-to) life.
26- The sun gives (out-off-up-in) X-rays and ultraviolet rays that are harmful to life.
27- The sun a giant ball of hot (substances-liquids-solids-gases).
28- Life (in-at-over-on) earth depends on heat and light from the sun.
29- The atmosphere absorbs most of the sun’s (harmful-harmless-acceptable-incredible) rays.
30- Storm (chasers-purchasers-sellers-buyers) are people who find and follow storms.
31- The tree outside the window blocks (in-out-down-over) the sun.
32- Since the volcano (emitted-omitted-permitted-erupted), many houses have been built in a dangerous position on its slopes.
33- I’ve been (awfully-awful-treble-incredible) worried about this week’s exam.
34- There's increasing demand for cars which are more (economical-economic-economy-economist) on fuel.
35- Some people are afraid that the light from the sun might go (up-down-out-in) permanently during an eclipse.
36- It (returns-burns-comes-goes) dark when there is an eclipse of the sun.
37- There is no scientific (sign-envy-evidence-deviation) to suggest that underwater births are dangerous.
38- The wind was (coughing-blowing-hitting-flashing) harder every minute.
39- There was a (clap-flash-dash-hit) of thunder and then it started to pour with rain.
40- Be careful or you’ll get (burn-burning-burnt-born).
41- The whole town (flowed-drowned-floated-flooded) when the river burst its banks.
42- Many chemicals are (damage-damaging-damaged-damages) to the environment.
43- I have a real problem (with-from-by-at) people who use their mobile phones on the train.
44- Why (at-over-in-on) earth are you shouting at me?
45- After days at sea, the sailors finally (sighted-lighted-looked-fought) land.
46- Thankfully no one was (destroyed-ruined-harmed-damaged) in the accident.
47- Volcanoes, waves and storms are (energies-strengths-powers-firms) of nature.
48- People are not often surprised by weather (foresee-forecasts-forefather-forearm).
49- Is it OK if you look at the sun (putting-dressing-putting on-wearing) sunglasses?
50- (Extreme-Extremely-Extra-Fine) weather conditions have a bad effect on the environment.
@ Find the mistake in each of the following sentences then write it correctly:
1- The sun is incredible strong.
2- Lighting is the light you see during an electric storm.
3- A gypsy is a hole in the earth from which hot water can rise.
4- Ultrasonic rays means light which can make people's skin go darker.
5- An ecstasy occurs when the sun or moon seems to disappear, because one of them is passing between the other and the Earth.
6- The river floated and killed thousands of people.
7- A thunder storm is one of the most impressive sites in nature.
8- The wind was so strong that it lifted people on their feet.
9- Storm eaters are people who find and follow storms.
10- Extremely weather conditions affect people badly.
11- Why on land did you leave the gate open?
12- Very high temperatures can make people ill.
13- Unusual weather is not a modern phenomenal.
14- Some African countries are suffering from starvation and draught.
15- Alexandria is in the northern of Egypt.
16- When there is heavy rain, the earth cannot drink all the water.
17- Astronomers can predict when eclipses occurrence.
18- The weather forecast can predict the weather of the following day.
19- Some storms can case terrible damage.
20- The wind usually blows in a southern direction.
@ Translate into English:
1- People have always been fascinated by lightning, so there is a great deal of myth and folklore surrounding it. In ancient times, people believed that lightning represented the anger of gods, who wanted to punish people. It was also believed that lightning made the grass and other plants grow greener.
2- Volcanoes are the most exciting and powerful natural event on earth. They provide dynamic and varied landforms. Every day there are about 20 volcanoes erupting on the earth.
@ Translate into English:
1- يمكن أن تسبب الثوارانات البركانية دمارا كبيرا و فقدان الحياة والملكية.
2- ان الطبيعة تؤثر على كل شئ نقوم به و هى دائمة التغير.
The Zero Conditional الحالة الصفرية
? تستخدم هذه الحالة للتعبير عن المواقف التى تكون صحيحة دائما مثل قوانين الطبيعة و الفيزياء و الكيمياء و الفلك……. الخ.
If + present simple مضارع بسيط present simple مضارع بسيط
- If you heat ice, it melts.
The First Conditional الحالة الأولى
If / Unless + مضارع بسيط will / shall / can / may + inf.
تعبر الحالة الأولى عن أحداث محتملة فى المستقبل.
- If it rains, we’ll get wet.
- If she works hard, she will pass the test.
- Unless he works hard, he won’t succeed.
The Second Conditional الحالة الثانية
If + past simple ماضى بسيط would/could/might/should +inf.
- If you walked all the way, it would take about three hours.
- I would go to the beach if it were summer.
تعبر الحالة الثانية عن أحداث ممكنة و لكنها غير محتملة فى الحاضر أو المستقبل
- I would watch the football match if they showed it on television.
(I do not think they will show it)
كما تعبر عن أشياء غير حقيقية أو مستحيلة
- If I were you, I’d listen to the weather forecast before going for a picnic.
(I am not you and can never be you.)
لاحظ استخدام were مع المفرد للدلالة على الاستحالة
تستخدم الحالة الثانية If I were you للنصيحة
- If I were you, I’d look for another job.
يمكن استخدام were بدلا من if مع ملاحظة أن were هى فعل الجملة الأساسى
- Were I younger, I’d play football with you.
إذا كان فعل الجملة فعل آخر غير were نستخدم were ثم الفاعل ثم to + inf.
- Were it to rain, the match would be postponed.
يمكن أن نستخدم had بدلا من if
- Had he enough time, he would go to the club.
لاحظ صيغة الاستفهام مع if
- What would you do if you won a lot of money?
يمكن استخدام should بدلا من if و يليها فاعل ثم مصدر
- Should he play well, he would win.
The Third Conditional الحالة الثالثة
If + past perfect ماضى تام would/could/might/should +have +p.p.
- If you hadn’t phoned, I wouldn’t have known you were back from your holiday.
- If you hadn’t gone to that school, I wouldn’t have met you.
تعبر الحالة الثالثة عن حدث خيالى فى الماضى.
- If it had continued raining, the town would have flooded.
(But it didn’t continue raining and the town didn’t flood.)
- If he had been taller, he would have been a basketball player.
(But he is / wasn’t taller and he didn’t become a basketball player.)
لاحظ صيغة الاستفهام مع if
- What would you have done if you had won a lot of money?
يمكن أن نستخدم had بدلا من if و يليها فاعل ثم تصريف ثالث
- If he had played well, he would have won. (Had)
Had he played well, he would have won.