Argue for يجادل لصالح
يدافع عن to clearly explain why you think something is true or should be done
شهادة علمية the qualification given to someone who has successfully finished a university course
Encourage يشجع to try to persuade someone to do something, especially by making them more confident
Inspector مفتش someone whose job is to check that something is of a good enough standard and that rules are being obeyed
Personal شخصي involving someone's private life, their feelings, health and relationships
Positive ايجابي having a good or useful effect
Role دور the position that someone has in a situation or activity
Be in charge of
مسئول عن to be the person who controls or is responsible for someone or something
Effective فعال / مؤثر producing the result that was wanted
Flight رحلة طيران a journey in a plane
Impressive مؤثر / مبهر making you admire something
Licence رخصة an official document that gives you permission to do something
Nursing التمريض the job of looking after people who are ill, injured or very poor
Solo منفرد / عمل منفرد done alone, without anyone else helping you
Suitable مناسب right or acceptable for a particular purpose or situation
in time = not late, early enough فى الوقت المناسب
on time = punctual فى الميعاد
at a time فى وقت / فى ذلك الوقت
Ex: I got home just in time - it's starting to rain.
Despite the bad weather, our plane left on time.
At a time when many girls didn't go to school, Aisha’s mother encouraged her daughter to get a good education.
on his own وحيد / بمفرده of his own ملكه
Ex: He’s been living on his own for four years now.
He had a car of his own.
staff هيئة العاملين crew طاقم (سفينة / طائرة)
Ex: When the ship sank, the crew were saved by a passing ship.
She was awarded her degree and then joined the university staff as a research assistant.
encourage + مفعول + to + مصدر بشجع ..... على .....
discourage + مفعول + from يمنع ....... من
Ex: My parents encouraged me to study medicine.
We should discourage people from polluting the environment.
persuade + مفعول + to + مصدر يقنع ..... بأن .....
Ex: He persuaded me to join a sports club.
be awarded يتم منحه (جائزة)
Ex: Carlos was awarded the first prize in the essay competition.
هناك ظروف معينة يمكن أن يبدأ بها الكلام و يأتي بعدها جملة كاملة مثل
Interestinglyمن المثير للاهتمام / undoubtedly بلا شك
unfortunately للأسف/ personally بصفة شخصية
Ex: Interestingly, none of their three children ever married.
Personally, I believe that everyone should study science at school.
decide to + مصدر يقرر Ex: He decided to buy a new mobile.
decide on + اسم يختار Ex: He decided on Greece for his next holiday.
decide that + جملة يقرر أن Ex: He decided that he would buy a new mobile.
Asking for reasons Giving reasons
Can you tell me why? (It's) because …
Why …? For (two/three) reasons
Is that the reason…? To start with …
Is that why …? Firstly / Secondly, because …
What (did you choose …) for? That's one of the reasons
What's the reason for …? Mainly because …
Study the following mini-dialogues:
1-A: I gave my mobile phone to my sister yesterday?
B: What did you do that for?
A: Mainly because someone bought me a new one for my birthday.
2-A: Can you tell me why you were late for school?
B: To start with, I didn't hear my alarm clock.
3-A: Why do you want to study science at university?
B: For two reasons. Firstly, because I enjoy science, and secondly because I want to be a doctor when I leave.
4-A: I was busy all day yesterday.
B: Is that the reason you didn't phone me?
Choose the correct answer:
1- Amy Johnson was a pilot who (broke-destroyed-smashed-ruined) world records for solo flights.
2- Florence Nightingale was a nurse who (produced-directed-stretched-introduced) new ways of nursing.
3- Queen Victoria (stayed-took-ruled-involved) Britain for 63 years.
4- My older brother has a (decree-degree-licence-flight) in Maths from Cairo University.
5- Exercise can have a (positive-negative-position-positively) effect on your health and fitness.
6- Nurses have an important (goal-rule-role-rank) in looking after patients in a hospital.
7- My parents have always (stopped-prevented-discouraged-encouraged) me to work hard at school.
8- I'd prefer not to talk about that. It's something very (personal-personnel-in person-personally).
9- I found university work very difficult, but my friends were always very (negative-discouraging-encouraging-passive).
10- Some students need much more (encouragement-discouragement-disappointment-depression) than others at school.
11- (Person-Personal-Personally-Personality), I believe that everyone should study science at school.
12- She would be a good nurse. She has a very kind (person-personal-personally-personality).
13- It was a great football match. Both teams played very (negatively-positively-badly-passively).
14- A 14-year old Japanese boy has become the youngest person to complete a (lonely-solo-alone-single) voyage across the Pacific Ocean.
15- Before you can fly alone, you need to have a pilot's (qualification-degree-agreement-licence).
16- The (flying-flight-swimming-walking) from London to Cairo takes about 4 hours.
17- Some films are not (right-kind-cruel-suitable) for young children.
18- Doctors are always trying to find (effective-negative-useless-infectious) new treatments for diseases.
19- My uncle is (of charge-in charge-with control-by charge) of the Science Department in a secondary school.
20- Your grades are (impress-impressive-impression-impressed), Jena.
21- (A collector-An inspector-A conductor-An investigator) checks that something is of a good enough standard and that rules are being obeyed
22- (A licence-A degree-A bill-A receipt) is a document that gives permission to do something.
23- (Accounting-Teaching-Nursing-Training) is a job of looking after people who are ill.
24- (Polio-Folio-Polo-Solo) means done on your own, without help from another person.
25- The doctor (advised-devised-blamed-praised) him against smoking.
26- A (cruise-tour-voyage-flight) is a journey by air.
27- The radiation leak has had a disastrous (affect-affection-effect-effective) on the environment.
28- There's no doubt about Sara's (suit-suitable-suitability-suiting) for the job. She is very efficient.
29- A (duty-responsibility-role-charge) is the position that someone has in a situation or activity
30- Her work (took up-took off-took down-took to) much of her personal life.
31- Amy Johnson (made-did-worked-played) many long-distance flights.
32- Her great work is still (appeared-applied-appreciated-appointed) today.
33- She (spent-left-went-did) her life doing the things she was most interested in.
34- (Public-General-Universal-Personal) means involving someone's private life, their feelings, health and relationships
35- As well as writing books on (social-sociable-society-variety) and culture, she also wrote poems.
36- Aisha Abd El-Rahman helped to improve women's (site-disposition-post-position) in society.
37- She was (awarded-got-gave-rewarded) her degree in 2007.
38- He joined the university (stiff-staff-stuff-crew) as a research assistant.
39- She was employed as a government (actor-ambassador-inspector-ancestor) for the teaching of Arabic literature.
40- Dr Aisha Abd El-Rahman is better known to some people (for-by-as-of) Bint El-Shatei.
41- On your first day in a new job, you should make a good (expression-impression-depression-tradition).
42- My studies take (place-up-over-away) all my time.
43- Dr Aisha wrote articles in which she argued powerfully (for-against-out-with) women’s rights.
44- Dalia was very successful (in-into-about-at) school and entered Assiut University.
45- Dr Aisha wrote many books and articles (on-of-for-in) cultural and religious matters.
46- He wrote many articles arguing (on-at-with-against) abusing سوء معاملة young children.
47- Mrs Mubarak has (promoted-argued-defended-supported) powerfully for children’s rights.
48- Dr Aisha wrote many books and articles on matters related to (cultured-culturally-cultural-culture) and religion.
49- Yusuf’s ability to speak French is very impression. Many companies will want to hire him.
50- Although Amy (broke-lost-wasted-missed) the record, she became very popular with the British people.
Find the mistake in each of the following sentences then write them correctly:
1- Father put Bilal in change of fixing the car.
2- I positive love that song!
3- Women have now taken on many rules that were traditionally for men.
4- Osama was encouraging by the soothing words of his uncle.
5- The new medicine has been tested for effective and safety.
6- Samir is licence to drive a car but not a lorry.
7- Hazem plays the piano impressive.
8- Yasser argues at better salaries for teachers.
9- Her mother discouraged her to get a good education.
10- Amy Johnson killed the record for a solo flight.
11- I tried taking tablets for the headache but they didn't have any affection.
12- Applicants must have a degrade in Engineering.
13- Children need lots of discouragement when they're learning new things.
14- The inspection reported that 20% of school children were unable to read or write.
15- Parents play an important rule in their child's learning.
16- He was arrested for driving without a certificate.
17- The first solar flight across the Atlantic took place many years ago.
18- The house is not really suitability for a large family.
19- I broke the vase during an agreement with my wife.
20- It's an extremely affective cure for a headache. It has no side effects.
Translate into English:
1- Egypt has always been called the “Birth place of civilization "because of its long and rich history. In recent years, the Egyptians are keen on restoring their glories to keep pace with progress in the developed countries.
2- Practising activities at school is of great importance. Teachers should encourage their students to participate effectively in school activities. Such activities help students to learn some values like co-operation, respect for others, self-confidence and perseverance.
3- Over-population in Egypt has led to many other problems like illiteracy, heavy traffic and unemployment. The government should exert more efforts to bring down the population growth rates. It should also pay more attention to the development of human resources.
Translate into English:
1- يشكل تعليم الفتيات أولوية تحظى بالاهتمام من جانب الحكومة المصرية.
2- مسئولية كل مصري تجاه الأشجار و الزهور كبيرة فهي تقلل من التلوث البيئي
3- تلعب مكتبة المدرسة دورا هاما في تزويد الطلاب بالمعلومات .
Relative Clauses عبارات الوصل
يستخدم ضمير الوصل لربط جملتين و يحل محل اسم أو ضمير موجود غالبا في الجملة الثانية:
Who: يحل محل فاعل عاقل (يليه فعل و لا يمكن حذفه)
- My penfriend is studying biology at university. He lives in Sweden.
My penfriend who lives in Sweden is studying biology at university.
Whom / who: تحل محل مفعول عاقل (يليه فاعل ثم فعل و يمكن حذفه)
- The boy was not at home. I wanted to talk to him.
The boy whom / who I wanted to talk to was not at home.
The boy I wanted to talk to was not at home.
تحل محل فاعل غير عاقل (لايمكن حذفه) أو مفعول غير عاقل (يمكن حذفه)
- Our flat overlooks the Nile. It is on the fifth floor.
Our flat, which is on the fifth floor, overlooks the Nile.
- The shoes don’t fit very well. Nadia bought them.
The shoes which Nadia bought don’t fit very well.
The shoes Nadia bought don’t fit very well.
يمكن أن نستخدم which لتحل محل فكرة كاملة:
- Jim passed the driving test. This surprised everybody.
Jim passed the driving test, which surprised everybody.
تحل محل فاعل عاقل أو غير عاقل (لايمكن حذفه) أو مفعول عاقل أو غير عاقل (يمكن حذفه)
- My brother is going to visit us soon. He lives in New York.
My brother that lives in New York is going to visit us soon.
- Fruit tastes best. It ripens on the tree.
Fruit that ripens on the tree tastes best.
Whose: و صفات الملكية وهى 'sتستخدم للملكية وتحل اسم متبوع بـ
- Aisha is my best friend at school. Her father is a well-known doctor.
Aisha whose father is a well-known doctor is my best friend at school.
Where: which ….. حرف جر / حرف جر + which
(there / تحل محل ظرف مكان (جار و مجرور
- My brother went to Alexandria University. He studies architecture there.
My brother went to Alexandria University, where he studied architecture.
When: (there / تحل محل ظرف زمان (جار و مجرور
- June is the month. I go on holiday in this month.
June is the month when I go on holiday.
هناك نوعان من عبارات الوصل:
النوع الأول يعطي معلومة أساسية عن الشيء أو الشخص أو المكان الذي نتحدث عنه ونستخدم في هذا النوع who / which / whom ولا نستخدم comma قبل أو بعد عبارة الوصل. ويمكن استخدام that بدلا من ضمائر الوصل المذكورة .
- My brother that lives in New York is going to visit us soon.
والنوع الثاني لا تقدم عبارة الوصل معلومة هامة عن الشيء أو الشخص أو المكان الذي نتحدث عنه ولا بد من استخدام comma قبل وبعد عبارة الوصل و لا تستخدمthat في هذا النوع:
- My penfriend, who lives in Sweden, is studying biology at university.
- Our flat, which is on the fifth floor, overlooks the Nile.
يمكن حذف ضمير الوصل في الحالات الآنية (مع ضرورة حذف verb to be أيضا):
إذا كان بعده مبنى للمجهول :
- The man who was injured in the accident was taken to hospital.
The man injured in the accident was taken to hospital.
إذا كان بعده جار و مجرور (حرف جر واسم):
- The boy who is in the library wants to borrow some books.
The boy in the library wants to borrow some books.
إذا كان بعده اسم أو صفة بعدها اسم:
- Dr Magdy Yacoub who is a famous heart surgeon was interviewed on TV.
Dr Magdy Yacoub, a famous heart surgeon, was interviewed on TV.
إذا كان بعده مبنى للمعلوم و نضيف للفعل v.+ ing :
- Students who arrived late missed the start of the experiment.
Students arriving late missed the start of the experiment.
لاحظ أن that / who لا يسبقهما حرف جر بينما يمكن استخدام حرف جر قبل whom / which whose :
- This is Ali that I told you about.
- This is Ali who / whom I told you about.
- This is Ali about whom I told you.
- The train by which I came arrived late.
- The train that I came by arrived late.
لاحظ استخدام that بعد صفات التفضيل للإشارة إلي غير العاقل و استخدام that أو who للاشارة الى العاقل:
- This is the most interesting story that I have ever read.
He was the best player that / who ever played football.
عادة تستخدم that بعد all / much / little
- That was all that he had said.
يمكن استخدام to + inf. بدلا من عبارة الوصل اذا كان ضمير الوصل في الجملة يحل محل الفاعل وفي حالة وجود ما يلي :
the first / the second / the last / the only
- Armstrong was the first man who walked on the moon.
- Armstrong was the first man to walk on the moon.
لاحظ هذه الصيغة:
It + is / was + اسم عاقل + who / that …
It + is / was + اسم غير عاقل + which / that …
- It was Graham Bill who / that invented the telephone.
- It was the traffic which / that delayed us.
لاحظ ان what = the thing(s) that / everything that
- Everything that happened was my fault.
What happened was my fault.
- Did you hear the things that they said?
Did you hear what they said?
Choose the correct answer:
1- The brother (who-whom-which-whose) lives in Moscow is coming home on Friday.
2- My penfriend, (who-that-where-when) lives in Sweden, is studying biology at university.
3- Aisha, (which-whom-whose-that) father is a well-known doctor, is my best friend at school.
4- My brother (whom-whose-where-that) lives in New York is going to visit us soon.
5- Fruit (when-that-where-what) ripens on the tree tastes best.
6- Our flat, (which-that-whose-where) is on the fifth floor, overlooks the Nile.
7- My brother went to Alexandria University, (which-when-that-where) he studied architecture.
8- She's written an article (of which-with which-in which-in where) she describes the problems facing our country.
9- Dr Aisha used to go with her father to meetings (at which-of which-to which-for which) she learned to read and write.
10- Queen Victoria's husband, Prince Albert, died in 1861, (after which-with which-by which-from which) Victoria always wore black clothes.
11- I'm hoping to study science at university, (which-that-after which-of which) I'd like to work as a research assistant.
12- The city (that-in which-when-what) I was born is in the south of Egypt.
13- Yesterday, I played a long game of tennis with my brother, (when-that-which-for which) made me very tired.
14- This is the bank (which-who-where-who) was robbed yesterday.
15- The man (who-which-that-whose) robbed the bank had two pistols.
16- He wore a mask (who-which-that-whose) made him look like Mickey Mouse.
17- He came with a friend (who-which-that-whose) waited outside in the car.
18- The woman (who-which-that-whose) gave him the money was young.
19- The bag (who-which-that-whose) contained the money was yellow.
20- The people (who-which-that-whose) were in the bank were very frightened.
21- A man (who-which-that-whose) mobile was ringing did not know what to do.
22- The car (who-where-which-when) the bank robbers escaped in was orange.
23- The man (who-which-that-whose) drove the car was nervous.
24- He didn't wait at the traffic lights (who-where-which-when) were red.
25- A police officer (who-which-that-whose) car was parked at the next corner stopped and arrested them.
Find the mistake in each of the following sentences then write them correctly:
1- Her work, that was not appreciated when she was young, made her famous when she was older.
2- These are the stories with whose we were brought up.
3- Those are the things whose are to be put on the shelves.
4- Shaimaa, which is an excellent writer, accepted a job at Reuters.
5- The professor what got his degree in London is teaching me this term.
6- These are the pesticides where we recommend not using.
7- Sami went to the Sorbonne, which he studied political science.
8- A woman which daughter was crying tried to calm her.
9- 1837 was the year where Victoria became queen of Britain.
10- I've just read a newspaper article in that the life of a famous woman is described in detail.
11- Lord of the Flies is a story in whom a group of school boys are shipwrecked on an island.
12- She asked me where I had been, to that I replied, "It's a secret".
13- Tomorrow, I'm going to a meeting at when we are going to discuss women's role in society.
14- He says he's busy, by where he really means he doesn't want to go out this evening.
15- He said something very cruel, for that I think he should apologize.
16- Cleopatra, whom was very beautiful, was the last pharaoh of Egypt.
17- Woman's Day, that marks an important event in 1919, is on March 16.
18- Alexandria, when my mother was born, is in northern Egypt.
19- He showed me round the town, who was very kind of him.
20- The treatment will continue until the patient reaches the point what he can walk correctly and safely.
Test (Unit 13 & Chapter
A- Language Functions
1- Respond to the following situations:
1- Your friend would like to know why you have decided to study engineering.
2- You want to ask your friend about the reason why he came to school late.
3- Your mother asks you why you didn't tidy up your room.
4- You ask your father the reason why he has decided to move house.
2- Mention the place , the speakers and the language function in each of the following two mini-dialogues:
1- A: What’s the matter? Place:
B: I have difficulty breathing. Speaker A:
A: Do you smoke? Speaker B:
B: Yes, I smoke 40 cigarettes a day. Function:
A: That’s terrible. Let me examine your chest.
2- A: Please sit down. Place:
B: Thank you. Speaker A:
A: Now, you’ve applied for a job as Speaker B:
a receptionist at this hotel. Function:
Have you got any experience?
B: Yes, I have. I worked at the Sheraton Hotel for two years.
B- Vocabulary and Structure
3- Choose the correct answer:
1- Omar has received a master's ……………… in conservation management.
a) effect b) flight c) degree d) licence
2- Farouk is flying …………………. for the first time tomorrow. He’ll have no co-pilot.
a) role b) suits c) licence d) solo
3- Mr Selim is an ………………… manager because he is a good listener.
a) observing b) effective c) admissions d) enjoyable
4- Salma thought this was a ………………… gift for her teacher.
a) suitable b) effective c) charge d) sob
5- Rania is optimistic. She always has a ………….. attitude and thinks everything will turn out well.
a) impressive b) personal c) encouraging d) positive
6- Mr Maged …………… all his students to do the best that they can do.
a) argues for b) effects c) encourages d) impresses
7- Hesham has just got his driving ……………, and already he wants to buy a car.
a) flight b) role c) licence d) degree
8- For my own ……………… satisfaction, I paint or read in my spare time.
a) role b) personal c) degree d) positive
9- The restaurant …………… Fady is having dinner has a great salad bar.
a) for which b) which c) where d) that
10- Jailan, …………… lives on my street, said there was a problem with the water.
a) whom b) which c) who d) whose
11- These are the fields ………… we grow corn.
a) in which b) for which c) that d) at which
12- Hans, ……………… car I borrowed last night, is from Holland.
a) whom b) that c) who d) whose
13- The meetings ……………… I attended today were long and boring.
a) to which b) where c) in where d) which
14- Five of the girls, …………… names I don’t remember, won awards in maths.
a) whom b) which c) who d) whose
15- I have no idea who ……………… was at the door.
a) who b) which c) where d) that
16- Moscow, ……………. the smog from wildfires was thick, was having air quality problems.
a) who b) which c) where d) that
4- Find the mistake in each of the following sentences then write them correctly:
1- There is a very strong argue for taking action against the build-up of greenhouse gases.
2- The police are now inspector the crime scene.
3- Female nursing nowadays wear trousers as well as dresses.
4- Florence Nightingale, which changed the way hospital care was given, opened a school of nursing.
5- Cairo University is the university in where Eman studies medicine.
6- Dr Aisha, who work took up much of her time, was a professor of Arabic.
5- Read the passage then answer the questions:
Dr Christina is one of a team of doctors who work in the Amazon Forest. They work to find out about the methods which local people use to treat diseases. Local people use medicines which come from plants, and the team want to know about these plants and study them to find the active component. Then they plan to experiment with them. Plant medicines were used for treating illnesses very long ago, and they are still common in many parts of the world. These plant medicines are safer and cheaper than scientific medicines and they work just as well for many diseases.
However, many people still use scientific medicines. Dr Christina says that we are too dependent on scientific medicines, which can be very dangerous and make people ill. Some diseases have become resistant to them. If the medicines stop killing bacteria and viruses, then they are more dangerous than useful. Many doctors do not recommend plant medicines, but this is because they do not understand them. Dr Christina says, “We are learning about forest plants so that we can teach city people to use them.” She thinks we should use plant medicines for most of our illnesses, and keep scientific medicines for treating dangerous diseases.
A) Give short answers to the following questions:
1-What does Dr Christina do at the Amazon Forest?
2-When can scientific medicines be dangerous?
3-What does the underlined word “them” refer to?
B) Choose the correct answer:
4-Plant medicines are …………………… scientific ones for treating many diseases.
a) more effective than
b) less effective than
c) as effective as
d) more dangerous than
5- …………………… use plant medicines more than other people.
a) Doctors and pharmacists
b) City people
c) Forest people
d) The medical school students
6- Read the passage then answer the questions:
The men who first tried to fly faced many difficulties, and one of the greatest difficulties was how to find a suitable engine. Steam engines were the first to be tried in aeroplanes, but they were too heavy to be of any real use. One such machine, made in 1884, was driven by a steam engine. It is said to have risen for a moment off the ground. Another rose, but fell and was damaged. When the petrol engine was invented, real success was obtained because it was very light for the power it developed.
Orville Wright, and his brother Wilbur, two Americans, had made a lot of experiments and had taken great trouble to study the art of flying in gliders before they tried to fly their planes. A glider is like an aeroplane without an engine.
On December 17, 1903, Orville Wright flew safely in a heavier-than-air machine for twelve seconds. Orville came down safely after the first short flight, and on the same day the experiment was repeated three times. The longest of these flights covered a distance of 852 feet and lasted fifty-nine seconds. The two brothers continued their experiments after their first success.
Other people followed the Wright brothers in their footsteps. Louis Bleriot, a Frenchman, flew across the English Channel from Calais to Dover in 1909. In 1919, Sir John Alcock and Sir Arthur Brown made the first flight across the Atlantic Ocean and in the same year, an aeroplane flew from England to Australia. The era of air travel had arrived.
A) Give short answers to the following questions:
1-What was the biggest problem that faced the men who tried to fly?
2-Why was the steam engine not suitable for use in aeroplanes?
3-In what way is a glider different from an aeroplane?
B) Choose the right answer:
4-The underlined word "it" in the second paragraph refers to...........................
a) the steam engine c) the glider
b) the aeroplane d) the petrol engine
5-The underlined word era means the ...................................
a) number b) year
c) ocean d) age
The Mask of Gold
7-A) Answer the following questions:
1- Why did the police put a special kind of powder on the safe?
2- Why was Amalia jealous of Leila?
B) Read the following quotation, then answer the questions:
“Forgive me because it is my fault that you are here."
1- Who said these words, to whom and where?
2- Why is the speaker asking for forgiveness?
C) Complete the following sentences:
1- Dr Hafez was shocked and upset when the police told him that Leila …………………
2- Amalia was a woman of conscience as she ……………………………………….
8- Write about 100 words about:
You have received an invitation from an international space agency to travel in space. The trip will take one month, however, you can only take 4 things with you. Describe your feelings and talk about the 4 things you would take and why they are so necessary for you. Tell us about the first person you would tell about your trip and why you chose him/her.
9- A)Translate into Arabic:
Great efforts have been made towards equality between men and women. Women demand equal pay for equal work. Although women have gained many of their rights, they still have a long way for complete equality.
B) Translate into English:
1- للاختراعات الحديثة الكثير من المزايا كما أن لها بعض العيوب
2- الأمية مشكلة اجتماعية خطيرة ولا بد أن نبذل المزيد من الجهود لحلها.