Unit 18: Lifelong learning
Man 1: Two years ago, I lost my job when the company I'd worked for since I left school closed. I looked for a similar job and sent my CV to a lot of companies, but I didn’t get any interviews. Someone said I might be too old. I'm fifty-one - and said I should try a different kind of job. They advised me to retrain. This seemed like a sensible idea, so I looked around and found a course at my local college where I could train as a teacher. I’ve just started my second year and I'm really enjoying it. About half of the other students on the course are mature students like me. Teaching is so different from the job I was doing before – I probably won't earn as much money as I did, but I am sure the work will be very rewarding.
Woman: I didn’t go to university when I left school. I got a job as a doctor’s receptionist. After year, I married and had a family. Now I'm forty-two; my children are grown up and I'd like to go back to education. I think I will appreciate it more now than I would have done when I was eighteen. I always enjoyed English at school, so I might study languages – I haven't decided yet. I’d really like to study medicine, but it’s a very long course and I can’t spend all my life studying. If I want to start this year, I have to apply by the end of next week. So I must make up my mind very quickly.
Man 2: My name’s Paul Roberts. I retired from my job as a bank manager five years ago and thought I'd enjoy all the extra free time I'd have. For the first two years, I had a great time. My wife and I travelled all over the world. But by then I'd had enough – I needed a new challenge of some kind, I needed to be busy again. Someone suggested doing a degree course. I thought they were joking, but I started looking round for suitable courses. In the end, I enrolled on a science course with the Open University. It's a university for people who want to study, but can’t leave home for some reason. You can do it at any age - and many Open University students have full-time jobs. It’s ideal for me. I can study at home when I want to, using my own computer. By the time I finish next year, I'll be nearly seventy-two years old, but it's a really worthwhile experience
Fifty years ago, most university students believed that when they graduated, their education had finished. They expected to get a job and work for one employer until they retired. Now students know they will probably have to change jobs during their working lives. This means they will probably need new skills, and in today's world, lifelong learning helps them to get these.
To remain employable, individuals must be good at the jobs they are doing and predict what skills they may need in the future. Tarek, who works in the finance department of a large company in Assiut, knows that to get a promotion he must improve his computer skills. His company needs highly qualified staff, so it provides courses for its employees, but Tarek is also doing an evening course. Doing his job and studying is hard work, but he knows it is worthwhile.
Nahla Zoheri lives in Damietta and has young children. She has a BSc in Information Technology and would like to return to work when her children are older. She hopes to get a Master's degree, bur the nearest university with a suitable course is in Cairo. Nahla cannot leave her family, so she wants to study by 'distance learning'. This is when students and teachers are in different places.
Nahla has now enrolled on an M.Sc course and is very happy. All the information she needs is on the internet and her teachers communicate with her by e-mail. In two years' time, Nahla hopes to get her Master's degree after studying in her own home and without leaving her family.
enroll on يُسجل / يُدرج اسمه department قسم
ideal مثالي / أفضل promotion ترقية / ترويج
mature ناضج (يزيد سنه عن 25 سنة) provide يوفر / يتيح
retrain يعيد تدريب qualified مؤهل
rewarding مُجزي / عائد بالنفع employer صاحب العمل أوالشركة
similar مشابه / مماثل employee عامل / موظف
worthwhile جدير بالاهتمام / مفيد employable صالح للعمل
adults الأشخاص البالغين full-time work عمل طول الوقت
current work العمل الحالي latest developments أحدث التطورات
change jobs يغير الوظيفة learn new skills يتعلم مهارات جديدة
challenge تحدى a worthwhile experience خبرة قيمة
officially بشكل رسمي waste material القمامة
college كلية internet café انترنت كافيه
satisfied راضى / قانع highly qualified ذو كفاءة عالية
grown up ناضج salute the flag يحيي العلم
appreciate يقدر national anthem النشيد الوطني
free time وقت الفراغ garbage = rubbish قمامة
sensible حكيم working life الحياة العملية
joke (v/n) نكتة / يمزح remain employable يظل صالحا للعمل
a sensible idea فكرة معقولة individuals أفراد
finance department قسم الماليات an evening course مقرر دراسي مسائي
stimulate يحفز firmly بحزم / بصرامة
computer skills مهارات الحاسب الآلي a degree course دورة للحصول علي شهادة
qualifications مؤهلات retire يحال للمعاش
distance learning التعلم عن بعد unemployed بدون عمل
existing skills المهارات الموجودة highly skilled jobs أعمال تتطلب مهارة عالية
practices ممارسات educational qualifications مؤهلات تعليمية
require يتطلب / يستلزم educational advisor مستشار تعليمى
technological progress تقدم تكنولوجى educational opportunities الفرص التعليمية
constantly باستمرار research يقوم بعمل بحث
advance تقدم educational تعليمى
vet طبيب بيطري predict يتنبأ بـ
dentist طبيب أسنان enjoyable ممتع
improve their position يُحسنوا مكانتهم extra زيادة / اضافى
get promoted يترقي member عضو
promotion opportunities فرص الترقي effort جهد
ideal choice اختيار مثالي choice اختيار
lifelong learning التعلم مدى الحياة possibility امكانية
personal life حياة شخصية necessity ضرورة
the open university الجامعة المفتوحة supply يزود
Prepositions, Idioms & Expressions
enrol on يُسجل /يدرج leave out يستبعد
hear from يتلقى أخبار من out of interest من باب الاهتمام (بالشيء)
get into a university يلتحق بالجامعة get to = reach يصل الي
work for يعمل لدى earn money يكسب المال
hope for يأمل progress through life يتقدم خلال الحياة
do a course in يدرس مقرر في increase / rise in زيادة فى
look around (for) يبحث عن out of date غير مساير للموضة / يبطل استعماله
at intervals علي فترات keep up with يساير / يواكب
make notes يدون ملاحظات have qualifications for لديه مؤهلات فى
present … with an award يقدم لـ ... جائزة miss opportunities تفوته الفرص
provide … for يوفر .... لـ participate in يشارك فى
communicate with يتصل بـ approve of يوافق علي
go back to education يعود للتعليم make friends يكون أصدقاء
in two years' time في خلال عامين take place يحدث
take up opportunities يستفيد من الفرص have the chance to لديه الفرصة لكي
be on a course ملتحق بمقرر دراسي on the internet على الانترنت
study online يدرس عن طريق الانرنت at any age في أي سن
make up his mind يقرر graduate from يتخرج من
bring up يربى graduate with ... يتخرج ومعه شهادة ...
object to يعترض على make efforts يبذل الجهود
Antonyms كلمات و عكسها
Word الكلمة Antonym العكس
employable صالح للعمل unemployable غير صالح للعمل
qualified مؤهل unqualified غير مؤهل
mature ناضج immature غير ناضج
rewarding مُجزي unrewarding غير مجزي
idealistic مثالي realistic واقعي
worthwhile جدير بالاهتمام worthless / useless تافه / غير مفيد
optional اختياري compulsory/mandatory اجباري
employed موظف unemployed بدون عمل / عاطل
Verb فعل Noun اسم Adjective صفة
enrol يُسجل / يُدرج اسمه enrollment تسجيل / ادراج
idealist الشخص المثالي ideal مثالي
mature maturity النضج mature ناضج
reward يكافأ reward مكافأة rewarding مُجزي / عائد بالنفع
similarity تشابه similar مشابه / مماثل
employ يوظف / يشغل employer صاحب العمل
employment العمل employed لديه عمل
promote يُرقي promotion ترقية
provide يزود / يمول provider مزود / متعهد / ممون
qualify يؤهل qualification المؤهل qualified مؤهل
enrol / enroll
يُسجل / يُدرج اسمه To become or make someone officially a member of a course, school , etc.
Ideal متالى The best that something could possibly be.
Mature ناضج A student at a university or college who is over 25.
Retrain يعيد تدريب Train to do a different job, learn new skills.
Rewarding مُجزي Making you feel happy and satisfied
Similar مشابه / مماثل Almost the same but not exactly the same.
جدير بالاهتمام / مفيد Useful or enjoyable , even though you have to spend a lot of time , effort or money doing it.
Department قسم One of the parts of a large organization , such as a college government or company.
Promotion ترقية A move to a better , more responsible position at work
يوفر / يتيح To give or supply something to someone especially something that they need.
Qualified مؤهل Having passed an exam that shows you have the training , knowledge or skills to do a job.
Employer صاحب العمل A person or company that pays people to work for them
Employee موظف Someone who is paid to work for someone else
Employable ممتع Having the skills and qualifications to make someone want to employ you
Ex: I’m sure Sara will make the right decision. She’s a sensible woman.
Sara is very sensitive. She wouldn’t want to hurt anyone.
mature ناضج (للشخص الذى يزيد سنه عن 25 سنة) ripe ناضج (للنبات كالخضار و الفاكهة)
Ex: I don’t think they’re mature enough to get married.
These apples aren’t quite ripe enough to eat.
college كلية (جامعية) colleague زميل
Ex: What sort of job do you expect to get after four years at college?
I know Mr John very well. He’s a colleague of mine.
educate يعلم bring up يربى
Ex: It’s not easy to bring up young children.
She was educated at Cairo University.
provide something for يوفر شيء لـ provide someone with يمد أو يزود شخص بـ
Ex: The government should provide job opportunities for young men.
The government should provide young men with job opportunities.
information معلومات (اسم لا يعد و لايسبقه أداة نكرة و يعامل معاملة المفرد)
Ex: The information he got is very useful.
expect + مفعول + to + infinitive يتوقع
expect + فاعل + will + infinitive يتوقع
expected + فاعل + would + infinitive يتوقع
Ex: We expect to get full marks in English.
I expect that you will be hungry when you return.
I expected he would win the race.
الكلمات الآتية تستخدم كفعل وكاسم
present يهدى / هدية increase يزيد / زيادة
object يعترض / شئ / هدف refuse يرفض / قمامة
produce يُنتج / محاصيل أو غلال / منتجات desert يهجر / صحراء
Ex: They will present him with an award. Father gave me a valuable present.
She objects to being called old. What’s that object you’re carrying?
What does your farm produce? They sell their produce in the market.
The price of oil is going to increase. There’s been an increase in temperature.
I refuse to believe it. They collect our refuse every week.
He deserted his wife. There are many sites in the Western Desert.
Choose the correct answer:
1- For me, a park with trees is the (ideal-idealist-idealism-idol) place for a picnic.
2- I've always wanted to paint – that's why I've (enrolled-entitled-entered-employed) on an art course.
3- Most southern European countries have a (alike-unlike-similar-different) climate: hot in summer and cold in winter.
4- My sister wants to be a teacher. She believes teaching is a (reward-rewarding-award-awarding) career.
5- Doing things for other people can be a very (worthless-meaningless-worthwhile-useless) experience.
6- The largest company in our town has 600 (employs-employees-employers-employment).
7- I hope the new skills I am learning at college will make me more (employable-unemployed-thinkable-available).
8- My father is a (qualify-qualifies-qualification-qualified) engineer.
9- My uncle is a teacher in the languages (division-section-part-department) at our local school.
10- She has worked very hard this year, so she is hoping for a (demotion-promotion-devotion-communication) at work next year.
11- Everyone likes working for Mr Hamdi. They say he is a very kind (employer-buyer-player-bricklayer).
12- Universities (do-provide-make-perform) the country with highly qualified young people.
13- The young man (deserted-deserved-desired-deprived) his birthplace and lived in a desert town.
14- In the modern world, most young people must expect (changing-to changing-change-to change) employers several times in their working lives.
15- I’ve enjoyed my career in banking, but now I’m looking forward to (resigning-retiring-retreating-withdrawing).
16- I hope that my employer will give me some training so that I get (retired-advanced-raised-promoted) quickly.
17- Amin is (doing-running-making-providing) an evening course in Accountancy, paid for by his company.
18- (Lifelong-Distance-Life-Lifeless) learning means learning that goes on for life.
19- Thanks to information technology, companies in cities all over the world can communicate (with-to-by-over) each other as if they were in the same office.
20- Nahla wants to keep (up with-up-out-on) the latest developments in Information Technology.
21- When you are good at your job, you get a (provision-production-promotion-protection) quickly.
22- I expect he (would-should-will-must) pass his exams easily.
23- My cousin used to be a soldier, but now he's (retraining-reworking-redoing-rewriting) to be a teacher.
24- Most of the people in my university group are in their twenties, but there are also three (pure-impure-mature-secure) students.
25- Someone that pays people to work for them is called a/an (purchaser-vampire-employer-employed).
26- (Involvement-Inclusion-Enrolment-Investment) at this college will take place in September.
27- An (idea-ideal-idealistic-idealist) is someone who tries to live according to high standards or principles, especially in a way that is not practical or possible
28- Graduates are finding it more and more difficult to find (employment-disappointment-employees-unemployment).
29- Self-control is a sign of (mature-maturity-maturely-amateur).
30- Some people return to education to take educational opportunities he had (lost-broken-missed-spent) when he was younger.
31- There are many (similarities-similar-same-likely) between the two systems.
32- Tamer asked if his pet snake would (qualify-clarify-liquefy-qualified) for the Cute Pet Contest.
33- (Ideal-Idealist-Idle-Ideally), we should all be lifelong learners.
34- The police offered a (rewarding-awarding-award-reward) for information that would lead to the arrest of the thieves.
35- They will (offer-present-give-take) him with an award.
36- I cannot believe that it is (sensible-sensitive-senseless-sense) to spend so much.
37- I believe I have the best (qualifies-qualifications-quantities-amounts) for the job.
38- My brother is doing a course (in-at-of-with) information technology.
39- People need to learn new skills during their (work-job-profession-working) lives.
40- Farmers sell their (introduce-produce-producer-producing) in the market.
41- New businesses will (destroy-employ-enjoy-expand) a lot of people in the city.
42- My uncle’s factory needs (highly-high-higher-height) qualified engineers.
43- Their hard work was (awarded-rewarded-got-congratulated) by the winning of a five-year contract عقد.
44- There has been an increase (at-in-with-for) the number of tourists going to Luxor.
45- He went back to university to (give-make-do-take) up opportunities to learn things he couldn’t earlier in his life.
46- They have already made up their (brains-heads-eyes-minds) where to go for your honeymoon?
47- The majority of small businesses now do their banking (out of line-online-offline-inline).
48- Finding a solution to this problem is one of the greatest (challenges-forces-changes- faced by scientists today.
49- His talents are not fully (appreciated-tasted-calculated-spread) in that company.
50- It takes a lot of (train-retrain-practice-politics) to play the violin well.
Find the mistake in each of the following sentences then write them correctly:
1- A company in my town closed last week, leaving 50 people employed.
2- Teaching is not very financially awarding.
3- The secondary school in our town employers more than a hundred teachers.
4- I hope my company will provoke me when I finish this computer course.
5- In many countries, the government is the main provide of school education.
6- My uncle works in the sales apartment in a big company
7- To remain unemployable, you must be good at the jobs you’re doing today.
8- The company needs an employer to work as an accountant.
9- An outside training company provisions special courses for our company employees.
10- A ripe student is a university or college student who is older than 25.
11- Tariq is making a course in computer skills.
12- Hani got a protection quickly because he was very good at his job.
13- My son has been rolled on the music class. He would like to practise the guitar.
14- By winning the race, John qualification for the Olympics.
15- Fady is the idealist person. He understands the field, has experience, and would be an inspiring team leader.
16- When the retrain is finished, the workers will know how to operate new computerized machinery.
17- When the employee reaches the age of 60, he / she retirement.
18- Dustmen collect our refusal every day.
19- She considers teaching a worthwhen career.
20- Paul is very similar in appearance with his brother.
Modal Verbs الأفعال الناقصة
should / shouldn’t / had better / had better not + infinitive:
تستخدم عادة للتعبير عن النصيحة
- You should look for a new job.
= It is a good idea to look for a new job.
- You shouldn't look at the sun. It's very dangerous.
- You had better not look at the sun. It's very dangerous.
should have + pp.:
تستخدم للتعبير عن أن شيء كان يجب أن يحدث في الماضي ولم يتم وتستخدم عادة عندما نوجه اللوم لشخص لعدم قيامه بعمل معين:
- You should have done your homework yesterday.
shouldn’t have + pp.:
تستخدم للتعبير عن أن شيء كان يجب ألا يحدث في الماضي ولكنه حدث ونستخدمه عادة عندما نوجه اللوم لشخص لقيامه بعمل معين:
- You shouldn't have parked your car here. It's a 'No Parking' area.
can / can’t + infinitive:
تستخدم للتعبير عن القدرة علي عمل شيء في المضارع أو المستقبل:
can + inf. = am / is / are + able to + inf.
am / is / are + capable of + v. + ing
have / has the ability to + inf.
- I can see very well without glasses.
= I have the ability to see well without glasses.
- We can solve this problem.
= We have the ability to solve this problem
= It is possible for us to solve it.
تستخدم أيضا للتعبير عن الاحتمال فى المضارع
- I can play tennis in the park whenever I want to.
- We can’t waste time watching TV.
كما تستخدم للتعبير عن شئ مسموح به أو غير مسموح به فى المضارع
- In some countries, you can drive at the age of 17.
(The law says this is permitted)
- In some cities, people can't use their cars every day.
(This is not permitted / it's against the law.)
تستخدم can في حالة الطلب والاقتراح:
- What shall we do tonight? – We can go to the cinema.
- Can you open that door, please?
- Can I use your office tomorrow?
could / couldn’t + infinitive:
تستخدم للتعبير عن قدرة عامة على عمل شئ فى الماضى
- At the weekend, they found a shop where they could buy cheap books.
- My sister looked all over the house, but she couldn't find her phone.
أما للتعبير عن قدرة محددة فى الماضى على الرغم من وجود صعوبة نستخدم
was / were + able to + inf.
managed to + inf.
succeeded in + v. + ing:
- I took my car to the garage this morning, where one of the mechanics was able to / managed to start it.
- I'd been trying to send that e-mail all day. Finally, I succeeded in sending it at six o'clock in the evening.
كما تستخدم للتعبير عن شئ مسموح به أو غير مسموح به فى الماضى
- In the past people could drive a car without passing a driving test.
- In the past, women couldn’t vote in elections.
و تستخدم couldللتعبير عن أى شئ مسموح به فى المضارع و المستقبل نستخدم
- You could borrow my camera tomorrow.
تستخدم could للتعبير عن الاحتمال Possibility في المضارع:
- We could ban cars from cities. (This would be possible if we wanted it.)
تستخدم could في حالة الطلب والاقتراح:
- Ali: What shall we do tonight? – We could go to the cinema.
- Could you open that door, please?
- Could I use your office tomorrow?
لاحظ استخدام could بعد I wonder if ..
- I wonder if you could help me with this bag.
might / might not + infinitive:
تستخدم للتعبير عن احتمالات فى المستقبل
- When I finish school, I might go to university to study medicine.
- But I might not go – I haven’t decided yet.
may + infinitive:
تستخدم للتعبير عن أن شيء سيكون مسموح به في المضارع أو المستقبل وهي صيغة رسمية أكثر تهذبا:
- May I use your phone, please?
- You may borrow my camera tomorrow, if you like.
must + infinitive:
تستخدم للتعبير عن إحساس قوي بضرورة عمل شيء من وجهة نظر المتكلم أو للتعبير عن أن شيء مهم بالنسبة لنا وفي هذه الحالة تستخدم فقط مع الضمائر I / We ومع You في حالة السؤال:
- I must visit my grandparents more often.
(It's important to me that I do.)
- Must you wear that yellow tie?
(Is it important to you that you do it? This also suggests that it bothers يضايق me.)
وتستخدم للتعبير عن نصيحة قوية وفي الأوامر كما تستخدم في القوانين والقواعد وعندما نذكر أنفسنا بضرورة عمل شيء:
- You mustn't be late or dad will be angry. (strong advice)
- You must clean your room before you go out with your friends. (an order)
- Drivers and passengers of motorcycles must wear helmets. (a law)
كما تستخدم في حالة توجيه دعوة أو التعبير عن مشاعر صادقة:
- You must come and see us at the weekend.
- You must try a piece of my cake.
تستخدم في الاستنتاج أو التعبير عن نتيجة منطقية:
- Dad must have left already. I don't see his car.
لاحظ استخدام للتعبير عن الضرورة في المضارع والمستقبل فقط :
• I must go now. • I must see my doctor tomorrow.
have / has to + infinitive:
تستخدم للتعبير عن إلزام مفروض علينا وليس أمامنا اختيار بسبب القواعد والقوانين أو الظروف
- If she wants to start her course this year, she has to apply before the end of March.
- Do you have to wear that yellow tie to work? (Is it part of your uniform?)
- We have to wear helmets if we are going to take the motorcycle. (The law says so.)
كما تستخدم في النصيحة و الأوامر:
- You have to apologize to Mona. You don't want to lose her as a friend. (advice)
- You can't go out. You have to clean your room first. (an order
need / needs to + infinitive:
تستخدم للتعبير عن أشياء ضرورية فى الحاضر أو المستقبل
- He needs to be busy all the time or his boss will be angry.
- We need to revise for next week's exam.
had to + infinitive:
تستخدم للتعبير عن الضرورة في الماضي
- We had to take a taxi as it was raining heavily.
don't have to / don't need to / needn't + infinitive:
تتخدم التعبير عن عدم الضرورة في المضارع أو المستقبل
- When you are on holiday, you don't need to go to bed early.
- She doesn't have to work on Saturday.
didn’t have to / didn’t need to + infinitive:
تستخدم للتعبير عن عدم الضرورة في الماضي
- I didn't have to do the shopping yesterday. My brother did it.
- I didn't need to go to school yesterday. It was a holiday.
needn’t have + pp:
تستخدم للتعبير عن حدث تم في الماضي على الرغم من كونه غير ضروري:
- You needn't have brought your umbrella. It's not going to rain.
mustn’t + infinitive:
تستخدم للتعبير عن أن شيء ممنوع أو غير مسموح به أو تترتب عليه نتيجة سيئة إذا قمنا به:
- You mustn't smoke in hospitals.
= You aren't allowed to smoke in hospitals.
= You aren't permitted to smoke in hospitals.
= You are forbidden to smoke in hospitals.
= You are banned from smoking in hospitals.
= You are prohibited from smoking in hospitals.
Choose the correct answer:
1- You (doesn’t have to-didn’t have to-shouldn’t-needn't) come if you don't want.
2- We (mustn’t-don’t need to-can’t-shouldn’t) lock the car. It's safe here.
3- You (shouldn’t-mustn’t-should-ought to) drive. You’re too tired.
4- This is a really good book. You (should-must-may-might) read it.
5- I'm absolutely sure! They (must arrive-could arrive-should have arrived-must have arrived) yesterday, I saw their ticket.
6- I was very tired yesterday. I (was-must-needn’t-had to) go to bed early.
7- You (mustn’t-needn’t-don’t have to-won’t) park here. It says a “No Parking area.
8- You (mustn’t-couldn’t-shouldn’t-shouldn’t have) telephoned me so late. I was fast asleep.
9- We’ve got plenty of time. We (must-mustn’t-needn’t-can’t) hurry.
10- He said I (may-might-should-needn't) try a different kind of job. I think it's good advice.
11- I found a course at my local college where I (could-ought-could have-mustn't) train as a teacher.
12- If I want to start this year, I (have to-may-might-shall) apply by the end of next week. I have no choice.
13- I (ought-should have-am able-can) study at home when I want to.
14- I (can't-may not-might not-should) spend all my life studying. It's impossible for me.
15- I (have to-must-might-can't) study languages. I haven't decided yet.
16- At my sports club, everyone (has to-should-may-might) wear flat shoes. It's an important rule.
17- You (shall-could-need to-manage) get more practice if you want to pass your driving test.
18- If you don't understand, you (may-might-mustn't-should) ask your teacher. That's my advice.
19- I really (can-must-may-might) go and get some bread before the shop closes. I don't have any bread left at home
20- You (can-have to-mustn't-might not) take photographs here. It's against the law.
21- My children (have to-must-need-needn’t) study ancient history at school next year.
22- We (have to-must-mustn’t-needn’t) buy souvenirs four our friends while we’re here.
23- We (must-mustn’t-needn’t-don’t have to) forget that tourism is very important for Egypt.
24- I (need-have got-needn’t-must) phone my friend this morning. I promised him I would.
25- You (needn’t-mustn’t-don’t have to-have to) drive fast in the city centre. It’s very dangerous.
26- You (must-need-have to-needn’t) pass your exams to go to university.
27- You (don’t have to-mustn’t-can’t-don’t need) take that train. There’s another one in ten minutes.
28- You (must-have to-need to-needn't) buy a pen. I can lend you one.
29- You (mustn't-don't have-need to-needn't) speak so loudly. We are in the library.
30- When you arrive in another country, you (have to-don't need to-mustn't-haven't) show your passport.
31- I (don't have to-shouldn't-need-must) hurry. My train leaves in 5 minutes.
32- I have been tired all day. I (needn't-have got-don't have to-must) get more sleep.
33- A hundred years ago, many people (can-can’t-could-couldn't) read or write.
34- By the ages of five, I (can-can’t-could-couldn't) swim 100 metres.
35- By the age of five, I (can-can’t-could-couldn't) go swimming on my own.
36- (Ought-May-Have-Don't) I ask you a few questions, please?
37- There is plenty of food in the world. We (can-won't-can’t-may not) feed everyone.
38- When I was younger I (could-can-was able-managed) stay up all night and not get tired.
39- (Should-Might-Will-Could) I speak to Mr Yacoub, please?
40- The doctors are doing all that they (shall-will-may-can), but she's still not breathing properly.
41- Accidents (can’t-mustn't-can-couldn’t) happen if there are too many cars in city centers.
42- You (must-ought-should have-could have) come and stay with us in Arizona sometime.
43- You (ought-could have-had better-may not) repaint the room. It looks so ugly.
44- I (didn't have to-had to-might-needn't) go to work yesterday. It was a national holiday.
45- You (may not-mustn't-can-ought) bite your nails. It's a bad habit.
Find the mistake in each of the following sentences then write them correctly:
1- I needn't buy this furniture yesterday. It was really unnecessary.
2- You have to do your homework today. You can do it tomorrow.
3- You can't leave now. You may finish this work first.
4- She must take a taxi yesterday as it was raining heavily.
5- I might wash my hands before eating. It's very important.
6- I wonder if you may do the shopping for me.
7- It was snowing heavily. The roads were slippery. At last we managed to reaching home.
8- We may use plastic cups, so we don't have to wash anything.
9- You mustn’t go if you don't want to.
10- In the past, people can't find clean water, so there were a lot of diseases.
11- Excuse me, should you tell me the way to the station, please?
12- She's been trying to pass her driving test for six years and she's finally managed in passing it.
13- She can the ability to do her job very efficiently.
14- We can end world hunger if we thought it was important enough.
15- You must to eat lots of fresh fruits because they’re very good for you.
16- You needn’t take things that don’t belong to you.
17- Drivers mustn’t carry a valid driving license when operating a motor vehicle.
18- We don’t have to take our umbrellas. It wasn’t necessary.
19- You mustn’t parked here. It’s against the law.
20- Smoking is allowed in the theatre.
Test (Unit 18 & Chapter 10)
A- Language Functions
1- Respond to the following situations:
1- An educational adviser asks you what skills you'd like to improve. You have never been very good at maths.
2- Someone has asked you for educational advice. Find out what qualifications this person has.
3- A friend wants to go back to education, but cannot leave home to go to the university. Suggest a distance learning course.
4- A friend suggests that you do an evening course to improve your English.
2- Mention the place, the speakers and the language function in each of the following two mini-dialogues:
1- A: Can I help you, sir? Place:
B: Do you have good cameras? Speaker A:
A: Yes. This one is very good. Speaker B:
B: How much is it. Function:
A: 125 pounds.
2- A: Can I help you? Place:
B: Yes, please. I’d like an English dictionary? Speaker A:
A: Here’s one. It’s 30 pounds. Speaker B:
B: Here’s the money. Function:
B- Vocabulary and Structure
3- Choose the correct answer:
1- Lamia is only 16, but she is …………….. . She behaves like an adult.
a) ambitious b) mature c) retrained d) similar
2- Dalia said that this book is difficult to read but it is ………….. . I’ll learn a lot about life from it.
a) qualified b) similar c) unkind d) worthwhile
3- You can tell they are identical twins. Even their likes and dislikes are …………….
a) ambitious b) similar c) worthwhile d) mature
4- The newly unemployed will need some ……………… to go back into the job market.
a) retraining b) maturing c) thinking d) rewarding
5- Hany’s family is celebrating his mom’s ……………….. to director.
a) department b) quality c) employee d) promotion
6- The shop assistant said we’d find the bicycle parts in the athletics ……………….. .
a) reward b) department c) promotion d) provision
7- Last week, he ……………… on an evening course to improve his language.
a) enrolled b) entitled c) entered d) employed
8- We all want to find ……………….. careers that pay well and provide satisfaction.
a) employable b) rewarding c) quality d) mature
9- We ……………… go to Al-Azhar Park tomorrow. We haven’t decided yet.
a) might b) have to c) should d) must
10- ……………… we have eggs or beans for breakfast tomorrow? You choose.
a) Might b) Need c) Should d) Could
11- We ……………….. be sensitive to and respectful of people’s differences.
a) might b) need c) could d) should
12- …………………… you make that noise? It really is annoying.
a) Can b) Could c) Must d) Might
13- Yasmin …………… be careful with what she eats because she has diabetes.
a) would b) needs to c) should d) could
14- Do you …………… wear those shoes to work? Are they part of the dress code?
a) have to b) must c) should d) could
15- They …………. go shopping yesterday because the shops were all closed.
a) shouldn’t b) can’t c) couldn’t d) mightn’t
16- Mum said we ……………… go out for ice cream after dinner.
a) have b) need c) could d) must
4- Find the mistake in each of the following sentences then write them correctly:
1- Ideal, we should all be lifelong learners.
2- The personnel manager is checking Walid’s qualifies.
3- The Open University provides distant learning to its students.
4- At the weekend, Omar found a great shop where he might buy inexpensive shoes.
5- Farid might to work harder to perform better on his exams.
6- If you need help with your mathematics, you should to ask your uncle Hany for help.
5- Read the passage then answer the questions:
Computers are used very extensively in the world today. Nearly everything we do in the modern world is helped or even controlled by computers. Computers are far more efficient than human beings and they have very good memories and can store huge amounts of information. In addition to that, computers can do calculations in a fraction of time and can do many of the things we do, but faster and more accurately. That is why computers are widely used nowadays.
Computers are used in many fields such as the field of health, the field of crime and in the field of arts and science. In the field of health, we use computers a lot in medicine nowadays. With the help of computers, doctors can keep patients’ records on a computer and any information about the patient can be obtained quickly and easily, besides working out what is wrong with a patient or the best treatment to give him or her.
In the field of crime, with the new national police computer, we are now able to find out details of car ownership and driving licences in no time.
In the field of science, computers are generally associated with the world of science and maths, history and literature. You tell the computer which subject you are interested in and it supplies you with information in seconds.
A) Give short answers to the following questions:
1- Why is the modern world controlled by computers?
2- How is computer helpful in the field of medicine?
3- Find words in the passage which mean: a) provide b) cure
B) Choose the correct answer:
4- Computers can store ………………… amounts of information.
a) few b) massive
c) little d) a few
5- …………… everything we do in the world is controlled by computers.
a) Rarely b) Early
c) Nearly d) Never
6- Read the passage then answer the questions:
It is most necessary for everyone to cut down on his food expenses. Since the early 1970s the cost of the food has gone up faster than the cost of all commodities and services. The increase has mounted to more than 300%.
For all Egyptian families, food is the biggest item in their monthly household. In fact, it swallows more than half the budget of millions of low-income families. Is it the fate of those families to face starvation?
You can reduce your food expenses by observing the following pieces of advice. Write a list of your needs. Don’t buy any items which are not included on the list. Choose the cheapest and healthiest kinds of food. You can buy fresh vegetables instead of frozen ones because they are cheaper and healthier. Chickens are cheaper than red meat. You can have cheese, beans and eggs instead of meat.
One last bit of advice, “Don’t go shopping on an empty stomach”. Shopping when you are hungry tempt you to buy things you don’t really need.
A) Give short answers to the following questions:
1- How have prices increased since the 1970s?
2- How can you avoid buying unnecessary food?
3- Find words in the passage which mean:
a) reduce b) suffering or death from lack of food.
B) Choose the correct answer:
4- The underlined word “it” in the second paragraph refers to -------------
a) the budget b) food
c) commodities d) services
5- As food is the biggest item in the Egyptian family budget, people should ----
a) buy all the food they like b) not buy any frozen food
c) buy only healthy and cheap food d) eat only when they are hungry
The Mask of Gold
7-A) Answer the following questions:
1- To what extent was Leila lucky in the story?
2- Show that Leila was grateful.
B) Read the following quotation, then answer the questions:
"I want to show you something. Let's walk along the road a little."
1- Who said this to whom?
2- What did the speaker want to show the listener?
C) Complete the following sentences:
1- Leila was brave because ………………………………………………………………………………..
2- If Lander hadn't been caught, he …………………………………………………………………….
8- Write a paragraph of about 100 words about:
"The importance of lifelong education"
9- A) Translate into Arabic:
The high cost of living is one of the most complicated problems in Egypt. To bring the prices down, both the government and the individuals should work together. Investment should be encouraged and production should be increased.
B) Translate into English:
1- تلعب وسائل الإعلام دورا هاما في توعية الناس بمخاطر التلوث.
2- السياحة هي ثاني أهم مورد للعملة الأجنبية لمصر بعد البترول.